The mission of the IT History Society is to encourage and help preserve information about the history of Information Technology. The IT History Society (ITHS) has created and maintains this website in support of its mission. Access to and use of this website and its contents are subject to the following terms and conditions and all applicable laws. BY ACCESSING AND BROWSING THIS WEBSITE, YOU FULLY ACKNOWLEDGE AND ACCEPT THESE TERMS AND CONDITIONS. ITHS may at any time revise these terms and conditions. If we do change the terms and conditions, we will so note those changes on this page. You are solely responsible for being in compliance with the then-current terms and conditions.


Databases and other materials on the website were complied using sources including those found on the Internet. The IT History Society (ITHS) allows anyone to use or copy content from this site consistent with the defined fair use exceptions of United States copyright laws. ITHS also hereby permits students currently registered in a bona-fide educational institution anywhere in the world to make use of such content for purposes directly relating to their studies, provided no profit or remuneration is gained from any work, including such a use or copy, and provided appropriate scholarly references are given in which the source is listed as "IT History Society." For citation purposes, the relevant URL, prefixed by "" is recommended to allow legitimate checking and future citation of such sources.

Please contact ITHS for copyright and licensing information at [email protected]. Thank you for respecting the rights of the IT History Society and other copyright holders.


The Trademarks of third parties used on this website are the property of their respective owners. Nothing contained in this website grants, by implication or otherwise, any right or license to use any Trademark displayed on the website without written permission of any third party owner of the Trademark. The misuse of the Trademarks displayed on the website, including alteration or use out of context, is strictly prohibited. The IT History Society hereby disclaims all responsibility for any and all claims arising from the misuse, misappropriation, or misrepresentation by others of the Trademarks found on this site.


Your privacy is important to the IT History Society (ITHS). All information gathered from you in connection with your use of this website will be governed by the provisions of the IT History Society Privacy Policy. For more information, see the complete ITHS Privacy Policy.


This website may contain links to third party websites. The IT History Society (ITHS) is not responsible for any content of any linked website. ITHS provides these links on our website as a convenience only, and a link does not imply endorsement, sponsorship, or any specific affiliation with the linked website.


The IT History Society (ITHS) is under no obligation to monitor this website and assumes no responsibility or liability arising from the content nor for any error, defamation, libel, slander, omission, falsehood, obscenity, pornography, profanity, danger, or inaccuracy contained in any information within the website. Users are prohibited from posting or transmitting any unlawful, threatening, libelous, defamatory, obscene, scandalous, inflammatory, pornographic, or profane material or any material that could constitute or encourage conduct that would be considered a criminal offense, give rise to civil liability, or otherwise violate any law. ITHS will fully cooperate with any law enforcement authorities or court order requesting or directing ITHS to disclose the identity of anyone posting any such information or materials.

Disclaimer of Warranties

This website is provided to you "as is" and "as available" with no warranty. To the maximum extent permitted by law, the IT History Society (ITHS) disclaims all warranties or conditions of any kind, whether express or implied, including, but not limited to, implied warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, non-infringement, the implied condition of satisfactory quality and implied warranties arising from course of dealing or course of performance. ITHS does not warrant, or make any representations that: (a) the website will meet your requirements; (b) the website will be uninterrupted, timely, secure, or error free; (c) the results or information that may be obtained from use of the website will be accurate or reliable; or (d) the ITHS website or material accessible through the Website is free of viruses or other harmful components. You acknowledge that if you rely on any information or content on our website, you do so solely at your own risk. Some states and other jurisdictions do not allow the exclusion of certain warranties, so the above exclusions may not apply to you in whole or in part.

Limitation of Liability

You expressly understand that in no event will the IT History Society (ITHS) or its officers, directors, parents, subsidiaries, affiliates, agents, licensors, or suppliers be liable for any direct, indirect, consequential, incidental, special, exemplary, or punitive damages, including, but not limited to, damages for loss of profits, goodwill, use, data, or other intangible loss, whether in an action under contract, tort (including negligence) or otherwise, arising out of or relating to: (a) your use or inability to use the website; (b) your reliance on or use of any content on the website. Some states and other jurisdictions do not allow the exclusion or limitation of liability for incidental or consequential damages, so some of the above limitations may not apply to you.


These terms and conditions are governed by the laws of the State of California. Each party hereby irrevocably consents to exclusive jurisdiction of the state and federal courts located in San Francisco County, California.


These terms and conditions express the complete understanding of the parties with respect to the subject matter hereof and supersedes all prior and contemporaneous communications and agreements, written or oral, regarding this website. If any provision of this Agreement or portion thereof is held invalid or unenforceable, such provision or portion thereof shall be deemed severed, and the remainder of this Agreement shall remain in full force and effect. The failure by the IT History Society (ITHS) to insist upon or enforce strict performance of any provision of the Terms of Use by you or others will not be construed as a waiver of any provision or right of ITHS. You may not assign or transfer these Terms of Use or any rights hereunder, and any attempt to the contrary is void. The Terms of Use will inure to the benefit of ITHS and its successors and assigns. Section headings used in this document are for convenience only and do not have any legal effect.


For questions, inquiries, or correspondence, please contact: [email protected]